Concurrent Medical Conditions And Long-Term Outcome In Dogs With Nontraumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage

Lowrie M, De Risio L, Dennis R, et al.

Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 2012;53:381-388.

Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage is bleeding originating from the brain or surrounding structures. It results from blood vessel rupture and may be primary or secondary in origin. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 75 dogs with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage were reviewed to determine signalment; intracranial compartment involved, size and number of lesions; type and prevalence of concurrent medical conditions; and long-term outcome. Hemorrhagic lesions were intraparenchymal (n = 72), subdural (n = 2) or intraventricular (n = 1). Thirty-three of 75 dogs had a concurrent medical condition. A concurrent condition was detected in 13 of 43 dogs with a single lesion ≥5 mm and included Angiostrongylus vasorum infection, intracranial lymphoma and meningioma. Of the 20 dogs with multiple lesions ≥5 mm, 7 had A. vasorum infection, 2 had hemangiosarcoma metastasis, 5 had suspected brain metastasis, and 1 was septicemic. Of the 12 dogs with multiple lesions, 2 had hyperadrenocorticism, 2 had chronic kidney disease, and 1 had hypothyroidism. Of these five dogs, all were hypertensive and four died within 12 months. No dog had a single lesion <5 mm. Long-term outcome was favorable in 26 of 43 dogs with single lesions ≥5 mm, 6 of 20 dogs with multiple lesions ≥5 mm, and 8 of 12 dogs with multiple lesions <5 mm. A. vasorum infection was the most common concurrent condition in dogs with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage (16/75), with an excellent outcome in 14 of 16 dogs. Prognosis in nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage is reported in terms of concurrent medical conditions and the number and size of lesions. © 2012 Crown copyright. This article was written by M. Lowrie, F. Llabrés-Diaz and L. Garosi of Davies Veterinary Specialists and L. De Risio and R. Dennis of the Animal Health Trust. It is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen’s Printer for Scotland