Santilli RA, Gerboni G.
The Veterinary Journal 2003;166:7-18.
An overview of clinical, laboratory, and diagnostic imaging features of congenital porto-systemic shunt (PSS) in dogs and cats is presented through the analysis of recent literature, and personal case log. Particular emphasis is given to diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonographic examination of PSS in the evaluation of shunt vessel anatomy, and of ancillary findings such as abnormalities of portal vein flow, portal branches, and liver size. Operative mesenteric portography to obtain information on PSS morphology and position, and quantitative hepatic scintigraphy, which allows the calculation of shunt fractions, are also described. Limitations for each diagnostic imaging technique are given.