Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 2007. 37(4): p.789-98, viii.
Thyroid surgery is indicated for malignant and benign neoplasms or hyperplasia of the thyroid glands. A ventral midline cervical approach allows for bilateral thyroid exploration. Care should be taken to avoid the surrounding neurovascular structures and esophagus. Evaluation of both thyroids should be done before proceeding with partial or complete thyroidectomy. Complications of thyroid surgery include intraoperative hemorrhage and clinical signs associated with damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerves, parathyroid blood supply, or parathyroidectomy.