Majeski SA, Steffey MA, Fuller M, et al.
Sentinel lymph node mapping can help to direct surgical oncologic staging and metastatic disease detection in patients with complex lymphatic pathways. We hypothesized that indirect computed tomographic lymphography (ICTL) with a water-soluble iodinated contrast agent would successfully map lymphatic pathways of the iliosacral lymphatic center in dogs with anal sac gland carcinoma, providing a potential preoperative method for iliosacral sentinel lymph node identification in dogs. Thirteen adult dogs diagnosed with anal sac gland carcinoma were enrolled in this prospective, pilot study, and ICTL was performed via peritumoral contrast injection with serial caudal abdominal computed tomography scans for iliosacral sentinel lymph node identification. Technical and descriptive details for ICTL were recorded, including patient positioning, total contrast injection volume, timing of contrast visualization, and sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic pathways identified. Indirect CT lymphography identified lymphatic pathways and sentinel lymph nodes in 12/13 cases (92%). Identified sentinel lymph nodes were ipsilateral to the anal sac gland carcinoma in 8/12 and contralateral to the anal sac gland carcinoma in 4/12 cases. Sacral, internal iliac, and medial iliac lymph nodes were identified as sentinel lymph nodes, and patterns were widely variable. Patient positioning and timing of imaging may impact successful sentinel lymph node identification. Positioning in supported sternal recumbency is recommended. Results indicate that ICTL may be a feasible technique for sentinel lymph node identification in dogs with anal sac gland carcinoma and offer preliminary data to drive further investigation of iliosacral lymphatic metastatic patterns using ICTL and sentinel lymph node biopsy.