Computed tomographic findings in three dogs naturally infected with Crenosoma vulpis

Mortier JR, Fina CJ, Edery E, et al.

Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 2018;59:27-31.

Crenosoma vulpis is a nematode lungworm found in wild and domestic canids in some parts of North America and Europe. Reported radiographic findings are nonspecific and consist of a combination of bronchial and interstitial changes of variable severity. This retrospective, case series study aimed to describe thoracic computed tomographic (CT) findings for a group of dogs with confirmed crenosomosis. Selection criteria were presentation with a chronic cough during the period of January 2016 to February 2017, evaluation by thoracic CT, and final diagnosis of C. vulpis infection based on bronchoscopic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Medical records and CT images were retrieved and reviewed by a board-certified veterinary internist, a veterinary internal medicine resident, two board-certified veterinary radiologists, and a veterinary radiology intern, and findings were recorded. Three dogs met inclusion criteria. Thoracic CT findings for all dogs included the following: diffuse bronchial wall thickening, multifocal peribronchial ground glass attenuation, consolidation of the pulmonary parenchyma, and cylindrical bronchiectasis. In two dogs, the bronchial wall thickening was irregular to nodular, which was consistent with the bronchoscopic findings. Two dogs showed pulmonary parenchymal bands. Thoracic computed tomographic changes in dogs with C. vulpis are consistent with those seen on thoracic radiographs and crenosomosis should be considered in dogs with these findings.