Computed Tomographic Appearance Of Equine Sinonasal Neoplasia

Cissell DD, Wisner ER, Textor J, et al.

Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 2012;53:245-251.

The computed tomography (CT) features of tumors involving the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses of 15 horses were reviewed. The 15 tumors included five neuroendocrine tumors/neuroblastomas, two undifferentiated carcinomas, two myxosarcomas, and one each of nasal adenocarcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, chondroblastic osteosarcoma, anaplastic sarcoma, myxoma, and ossifying fibroma. All tumors except the ossifying fibroma were iso- or hypoattenuating relative to masseter muscle. Thirteen of the fifteen tumors exhibited moderate or marked osteolysis of adjacent cortical bone and 14/15 were characterized by destructive changes of the nasal turbinates, nasal septum, and/or infraorbital canal. Ten horses had moderate or marked involvement of the cribriform plate and six had clear intracranial extension of the mass. CT features were compared to radiographic findings for 10 horses. A mass was observed in 10/10 radiographic studies and mass within the caudal maxillary sinus (7/8) and rostral maxillary sinus (6/7) was identified correctly in most horses. The radiographs were least sensitive for identifying masses within the sphenopalatine sinus (0/5), cranium (0/4), and retrobulbar space (1/7) compared to CT. The radiographs also underestimated potential features of malignancy, such as severity of osteolysis or osseous production. While radiographs are a useful screening tool for identification of sinonasal masses, CT provides greater information regarding mass extent, features of malignancy, and important prognostic indicators.